Ārūḍha padas

There are two ways that ārūḍha pada calculation is approached nowadays:

  1. with exceptions;
  2. without exceptions.

Method (1) is described in Bṛhat Pārāśara Horā Śāstra, verses 29.1-7. The main rule is given in verses 29.1-3, exceptions are described in 29.4-5, and verses 29.6-7 imply that Rāhu and Ketu should also be considered for Kumbha and Vṛścika, if they are stronger than Śani and Maṅgala, respectively. This interpretation is given in translations by both R. Santhanam (1984) and Girish Chand Sharma (1999).

This method with exceptions is also described in “Jaimini Maharishi’s Upadesa Sutras”, verses 1.1.30-32 by Sanjay Rath (1997). Exceptions are also given in “Jaimini Sutramritam”, verses 1.1.29-31 by Iranganti Rangacharya (1995), but they are slightly different.

Method (2) is described in “Studies in Jaimini Astrology”, chapter 2 by B. V. Raman (1986) and “Jaimini Sutras”, verses 1.1.29-31 by B. Suryanarain Rao (1955), and is also the preferred method in the school of K. N. Rao.

It can be seen above that the same verses in Jaimini sūtras are referred to by both groups: verse 1.1.29 gives the main rule and verses 1.1.30-31 supply additional information. However, some astrologers infer that verses 1.1.30-31 describe the method with exceptions and other astrologers consider that they describe the method without exceptions.

Chakra Darshana provides both methods with a setting to choose between them, with exceptions being the default.